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Egyptian Goddesses
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Amenti, Lady at the Gates

This Goddess of the Underworld was responsible for greeting the dead on their arrival in the West. As is often the case in Egyptian religion, Amenti's place was by no means permanent: other tales say Nut, Hathor, Neith or Ma'at greeted the dead.

Ammut,
Devourer of Souls

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Ammut

Ancient Egyptians had no conception of Hell or place of punishment; but after death there came the weighing of the soul in presence of Osiris and Toth wrote the good and evil doings of the soul into a book. If the soul weighed too heavy with sin, the soul was destroyed, devoured by the monster Ammut.

Bastet, Sacred Cat

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Click below to enter her site:

Hathor, Lady Mother

(Het-heru, Het-Hert)
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Hathor

 

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Hathor

Hathor ("House of Horus") is generally presented as a Cow Goddess and Mother Goddess. She is a complex Deity, who is on the one hand a Sky-Goddess and Matron of Love, yet also has a destructive element to Her nature, which is represented in Sachmet. Some versions of the Egyptian creation myth name Her as the Primal Creatrix. Her son was named Ahy.

She had so very many manifestations that eventually seven important ones were selected and widely worshiped as the "Seven Hathors": Hathor of Thebes, Heliopolis, Aphroditopolis, Sinai, Momemphis, Herakleopolis, and Keset.

Responsible For: Music and Dancing, also Drunkenness, Underworld, Women, Joy, Motherhood, Love, Lighthearted Pleasure, Justice. She was combined with many other goddesses such as Bast, Nut, Tefnut and Sachmet. Later Isis-Hathor formed one Goddess. 

Symbols: cow, solardisc, lioness, falcon (being the mother of Horus from Edfu), cobra, sistra and musical instruments; drums and castanet-like clappers; pregnant mothers, mirrors and cosmetic items.

Offerings: milk, pomegranates, rich and/or sweet foods, wine (especially red), mirrors, and expensive items, including myrrh, incense, precious stones and metals, clothing and cosmetics.

Hequet

Consort of Khnum, the creator God of mankind.

Isis, Lady of Life

 

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Isis is the most well-known Egyptian Deity. Isis was the daughter of Nut, wife of Osiris, and mother of Horus. She was sometimes called Aset. When Osiris was killed by his brother Set, his body was set adrift in the Nile and Isis began her search for him. When she found him, Set learned of it and stole his body, chopped it into pieces, and threw it into the water again. Isis retrieved her husband and reassembled him.

Isis assumed, during the course of Egyptian history, the attributes and functions of virtually every other important goddess in the land. Her most important functions, however, were those of motherhood, marital devotion, healing the sick, and the working of magical spells and charms. She was believed to be the most powerful magician in the universe, owing to the fact that she had learned the Secret Name of Ra from the god himself.

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Her sacred instrument: the Sistrum

Her worship flourished in Egypt for all of its three thousand years. In the beginning she was a protective mother goddess of birth, life and death and later transformed into the Highest of All.

Her faith eventually spread throughout the Near East and Mediterranean. In later Rome her cult became very important: the roads and ships of the Roman Empire carried Isis to ancient France, Germany and Britain.

Symbol: The throne sign.

The cult of Isis spread from Alexandria throughout the Hellenistic world after the 4th century BC. It appeared in Greece in combination with the cults of Horus, her son, and Serapis, the Greek name for Osiris. The Greek historian Herodotus identified Isis with Demeter, the Greek goddess of earth, agriculture, and fertility. The tripartite cult of Isis, Horus, and Serapis was later introduced (86BC) into Rome in the consulship of Lucius Cornelius Sulla and became one of the most popular branches of Roman religion. It later received a bad reputation through the licentiousness of some of its priestly rites, and subsequent consuls made efforts to suppress or limit Isis worship. The cult died out in Rome after the institution of Christianity, and the last remaining Egyptian temples to Isis were closed in the middle of the 6th century AD.

   

Ma'at, Cosmic Balance

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maat20.jpg There is much debate among Egyptologists as to whether Ma'at is an "actual" Goddess or only the personification of a concept. Many Egyptian temples show Her in human form. She symbolized truth, cosmic balance, right order, justice, natural law, was very much the idea at the heart of Egyptian civilization. Ma'at was a daughter of Re and the consort of Thot.

Her feather of truth was weighed against the sins of the soul (see Ammut): In funerary scenes and pictures depicting the underworld, the figure of Ma'at or her feather was placed on the opposite side of the scale from the heart of the deceased. If the scale balanced, the deceased was allowed to go on to the afterlife. If not, she was given to Ammut to devour. Thus the red plume of Ma'at itself became a hieroglyph for "truth".

All civil laws in Egypt were held up to the "Law of Ma'at", which essentially was a series of old conceptions and morals dating to the earliest times in Egypt. A law contrary to the Law of Ma'at would not have been considered valid in Egypt.

Symbols: ostrich feather, scales of judgment.

Offerings: ostrich feathers, heart-amulets, items associated with the legal process, clean sand (strewn in front of a ritual procession to demonstrate purity). Ma'at is also used as an offering to specific Names when it is embodied as a concept rather than a Name proper; in antiquity as well as currently, either an ostrich feather or a statue of Ma'at is used for the purpose.

Mafdet A goddess of "divine vengance"
as I like to call it, she is represented by a cat
running up the blade of a sword, and often one who deals out the punishment met out by the greater. (from an Email of Emily, thx :-)

MutMut

Mut

Mut was part of the three-gods in Theben: Amun-Re (her consort) and Chon (her son)

Mut seen as the mother, the loving, receptive, nurturing force behind all things, even as her husband was the great energy, the creative force. The word "mut" in Ancient Egyptian means "mother". She was also the mother of Khonsu, the moon god.

Mut Symbols: Double Crown, vulture, cobra, lioness (being combined with Sachmet), queen. Offerings were similar to those given to Amen-Re and Hethert (a Name with which She shared the spotlight as a motherhood divinity), with emphasis on the quality and/or expense of the items being offered.

Offerings: precious stones and metals (gold, silver and lapis lazuli in particular); beef; sweet and heady perfumes; fans made of ostrich feathers. Never offered: rams.

Neith, Lady War

Net, Neit

A very ancient goddess worshiped in the Delta; revered as a goddess of wisdom, often identified with Ma'at; in later traditions, the sister of Isis, Nephthys, and Serket, and protectress of Duamutef, the god of the stomach of the deceased.

Symbols: bow and arrows, shields and weapons, Red Crown of Lower-Egypt.

Offerings: baskets (floating baskets with candles within, much like the Mexican "luminaria," were used in celebratory rites on Nit's behalf), strong meat and drink.

Nekhbet, Lady Vulture

Nekhbet (nechbet) is a very ancient Goddess of Upper (southern) Egypt. In some cosmogonies, She is the Creatrix. She is rarely represented in human form, she was a vulture.

She was responsible for Wild Birds, Creator Of Life, Death and Rebirth.

She was closely associated with her sister Uadjet, the cobra goddess, and together they were known as the Nebti. As a pair, they represented cycles of birth and death, beginning and ending.

Symbols: vulture, White Crown.

Offerings are general.

Nephthys, Lady of the House


Nephthys (or Nebthet) is generally interpreted by Egyptologists as the Dark Twin of Isis. The sister and wife of Set, and sister of Isis and Osiris; also the mother (variantly by Set or by Osiris) of Anubis. She abandoned Set when he killed Osiris, and assisted Isis in the care of Horus and the resurrection of Osiris. She was, along with her sister, considered the special protectress of the dead, and she was the guardian of Hapi, the protector of the lungs of the deceased.

Her headdress is a combination of the hieroglyphs for "lady" and "house", meaning "lady of the mansion".

Responsible for: Immortality, Justice, Water, Weather, Wild Birds, Moon and Night, The Underworld

Nut, Nuit
Celestial Mistress

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Nut

The goddess of the sky, daughter of Shu and Tefnut. Nut is the Mother of four of the primary Deities of the Egyptian pantheon: Isis, Osiris, Nephthys and Set. Her body is the Sky, Her husband the Earth (Geb). She gave birth to the sun and the universe.

Responsible for: Sky and Heavens, Mother and Guardian, Demi-Animals, Immortality, Physical Prowess

Symbols: stars and the nighttime sky; cow; items which enclose, such as bowls, boxes and even coffins (because she was a protectress of the dead) .

Offerings: Cool water, milk, enclosing items, flowers.

Pasht/Pakit

She is a a cat goddess of the Southern Nile area.

Sekhmet
Fierce Lioness

Sekhmet


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Sekhmet

Sekhmet (Sachmet, Sakhmis, Sekhet, Ubastet) ("The Mighty"), is often combined with Bast. Sometimes She is another form of Bast, sometimes another form of Hathor, sometimes an autonomous Goddess. She was part of the three-gods at Memphis: Ptah-Nefertem-Sachmet. At Theben she was combined with Mut, in whose temple there were 574 statues of Sachmet.

She was the mighty Goddess of war, destruction and illness, not as a "Bad" goddess, but as the punisher of mankind. In one myth she will be the one who destroys mankind at the end of time.

Symbols: lioness, cobra, Udjat-eye, sekhem-scepter.

Offerings: beer and intoxicating liquids (red beer is the liquor of preference; strong meats and other foods; raw meat and its blood in a bowl; pomegranates and mandrakes, sand.

Selket,
Scorpion Lady

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Selket 

Selket (Selkit) was the divine scorpion, who ruled over medicine and magic. She also protected the coffins of the dead.

Selket was the wife of Ra. She aided Isis, Nephthys, and Neith in guarding the canopic jars of Osiris.

Her name is also written: 'serqet hetit', which means: who lets the trought breath.


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Seshat,
Mistress of Books

Seshat was shown always as a human wearing a fur and holding items to write.
The Mistress of writing and sience later lost some of her importance to Thoth, but remained.

In very ancient Egypt, priestess and scribe were often one and the same. Seshat's Divine position, and the earthly position of Her priestesses, were eventually taken over by Thoth and His priests.

Sopdet/Sothis

She was the personification of the dog star Sirius. The appearance of Sirius in July (called the helical rising) heralds the flooding of the Nile. Therefore she was thought as bringing the annual flooding of the Nile. She is usually portrayed as a lady wearing the white crown of Upper Egypt with a star on her head, but sometimes as a large dog.

Taueret, Lady of Birth

 

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Taweret Site
See her own page and shrine.

Tefnut

The goddess of moisture and clouds, daughter of Ra, sister and wife of Shu, mother of Geb and Nuit. Depicted as a woman with the head of a lioness, which was her sacred animal. The name "Tefnut" probably derives from the root "teftef", signifying "to spit, to moisten" and the root "nu" meaning "waters, sky."

Her image was combined with Sachmet, Bastet and Hathor. She was responsible for Order, Justice, Time, Heaven and Hell, Weather.

Uadjet, Lady Cobra

Uadjet

Uadjet is an extremely ancient Goddess of Lower (northern) Egypt. She is often paired with Nekhbet, and is personified by the uraeus, the cobra on the Pharaoh's crown. She is sometimes called Buto.

As her sister Nekhebet was the motherly protectress of the pharoah, so Uadjet was his aggressive defender.

Responsible for: Justice, Time, Heaven and Hell