HOME South American Realm

 

Temple

Here the old south-american
goddesses shall dwell again.

So far I plan a shrine for Coatlicue.

Information on Aztec, Inca
or Mayan Goddesses is most welcome.

 

fire Coatlicue Art pic fire

The above picture is used with
permission of the artist:
http://www.netdot.com/3c/

 

Acpaxapo

Hah goddess (Otomi-Tribe)

The people received from her forecasts, omens and announcements about their future. She was represented as a serpent, with face and hair of a woman.

(Got a email contact with Miguel, who told me something about the Hah goddess (Otomi-Tribe). All information on these added goddesses is from him. Thxs so much Miguel)


Akhushtal

Akhushtal is the goddess of childbirth in the Maya mythology.

 

Atlatonan

"Goddess of Lepers" Also patron of those born with physical deformities or for those unfortunate Mexica who suffered from open sores. This deity was also thought to be the cause of these ailments.

Axomama

"Lady of Potatoes": Her name means "Potato Mother." Potatoes have been the staple food of the peoples of the Andes since ancient days; they come in a wide variety, which are only now being discovered by distributors in industrialized nations.

Caipora

"Lady of the Beasts": Among Brazilians, She is a Goddess of Wilderness. She protects animals from human hunters.

Chantico

"Lady of the Hearth": This Aztec Goddess of the Hearth was a Matron of lapidaries and warriors. She is often associated with the Goddess Xochiquetzal (profiled below).

" The Aztec goddess of hearth fires and volcanic fires. When she violated the ban on eating paprika on fasting day by eating roasted fish with paprika, she was turned into a dog by the maize-god Tonacatecutli. Her name means 'she who dwells in the house'." (Encyclopedia Mythica online)

Chasca

"Lady of the Dawn": Among the Inca of Peru, She was honored as a Goddess of the Dawn and Twilight. She was the special Protectress of virgins and young girls.

Chalchiuhtlicue, Lady of Waters

This Aztec Goddess, whose name means "Jade Skirt," was Matron of lakes and streams. Her husband is Tlaloc, God of Rain.

>>In Aztec mythology, Chalchiuhtlicue is the goddess of running and fertility water. She is the consort of Tlaloc, the god of the sky. He was drven away by Quetzalcoatl and was replaced by Chalchiuhtlicue. She was so furious that she created violent floods, and only those who were turned into fish. She is also a vegetation goddess associated with maize. She was depicted bearing a rattle on a stick and dressed in clothing decorated with water lilies.>> (Encyclopedia Mythica online)

"Goddess of Springs and Rivers". "Jade Skirt" "She Who Was the Water". Other spelling may be Chalchiuhcueyeh, meaning "Jade Skirt Owner". Also known at the goddess Matalcueyeh, meaning "Blue Skirt Owner". Also known as Xoxouhqui Ihuipil, or Xoxouhqui Icue, Meaning "Her Skirt is Green". During birthing ceremonies may have been worshipped as Chalchiuh Tlatonac. Either a wife or sister to TLALOC the Rain God, depending on which legend is told. Identified by her attire consisting of paper ornaments painted blue and white. Tassels hanging down either side of her face is a recurring feature in her representations. An annual feast to this goddess in her other name of Etzalqualiztli, was a well attended event with a special sacrifice made. Name translates to "Lady Precious Green". This goddess was the patron saint of the sea and the Veracruz region of the Gulf of Mexico was referred to as Chalchiuhcueyecatl, meaning "the water of the goddess Chalchiuhtlicue". People who made their living from the water prayed to her constantly. Shrines made to this goddess were generally built near streams, aqueducts, or irrigation ditches. Her most important shrine was located at Pantitlan, located in the center of Lake Tetzcoco. Her priests were devoted to the worship of fertility, the renewal of nature, and the earth.

Associated with the mountains Iztaccihuatl and Popocatepetl when the mountains were viewed as a source of running water. It was not uncommon to depict this deity wearing a representational mask of Tlaloc.

Chalchiuhtlicue was also worshipped during the birthing process and with the arrival of a newborn a special ceremony by the midwife would be held. The ceremony involved the midwife shouting war cries in honor of the battle the mother fought giving birth, and for the woman having become a warrior and capturing a baby. The cord would be ceremoniously cut while the midwife would tell the baby of life. During the first bath the midwife would describe the purifying water god and tell the baby about Chalchiuhtlicue. This god was thought to manifest herself in water whirlpools. See also Tlaloc listing for special sacrificial ceremony of an impersonator of this deity and shared ceremony.

Source: AZTEC RELIGION - (C)1997-99 Thomas H. Frederiksen

Chihucoatl 

Aztec Godddes: "The Woman Snake" - Earth mother, variously identified with Coatlicue (Serpent Skirt), Tonantzin (Our Mother), and very possibly with the Virgin of Guadalupe, whose shrine stands on the ancient ground sacred to Tonantzin. Some writers say she is to be identified as Toci and Teteo Innan (see Tlazolteotl, above). She is also Quilaztli, who with Quetzalcoatl formed the new men and women after the birth of the Fifth Sun.

The image of this female deity was of stone with a large open mouth and horrible teeth and was dressed a womanly style, skirt and blouse, which were white. The image in Tenochtitlan was kept in a large chamber perpetual darkness. The only entrance to the shrine was a small crawlspace. The door to the crawlspace was covered with a lid to hide the entrance. The room was called Tlillan, "Blackness".

>>An Aztec earth and mother-goddess, patroness of birth and of women who died while giving birth. She assisted Quetzalcoatl in the creation of the first humans of this era, which are made from the ground bones of the people of the previous era mixed with the blood of the old gods who committed self-sacrifice so that the new era could begin. Mixcoatl is her son. Cihuacoatl, which means 'snake-woman', is usually portrayed holding a child in her arms. Cihuacoatl's roaring signalled war. The center of her cult was at Colhuacan (at the Texcoco Lake in Mexico). >>(Encyclopedia Mythica online)

Coatlicue
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Aztec Great Goddess of life, death and rebirth. She often wears a skirt of snakes and a necklace of skulls.

The Aztec goddess of earth and fire, and mother of the gods and mother of the stars of the southern sky. Her daughter is the goddess Coyolxauhqui. Coatlicue was magically impregnated by a ball of feathers. Her outraged children decapitated her, but the god Huitzilopochtli emerged fully armed from his mother's womb and slew many of his brothers and sisters. She represented the type of the devouring mother in whom were combined both the womb and the grave. Coatlicue was a serpent goddess, depicted wearing a skirt of snakes. (Encyclopedia Mythica online)

Her statue now stands in the National Museum of Anthropology in Ciudad de Mexico.

The Mother of Gods-The Devourer of Filth-Our Grandmother Wears a skirt made of braided serpents secured by another serpent and a necklace of human hands and hearts with a human skull. Her feet and hands are adorned with claws. Coatlicue was seen as an insatiable deity feasting on the corpses of men. Her breasts are depicted as hanging flaccid from nursing. Also known as Teteoinan, (Teteo Inan), "The Mother of Gods", gave birth to the moon, stars, and Huitzilopochtli. Also known as Toci, "Our Grandmother", and known as Cihuacoatl, patron of women who die in childbirth. Cihuacoatl has transformed into modern Mexican culture as La Llorona, "The Weeping Woman", said to carry the body of a dead child and weep at night in city streets. Also known as Llamateuctli, "Leading Old Woman", who wore a two sided mask, one in front and another behind her head. Both masks contained open mouths and large protruding eyes that signified her role as giver of life and death. She was also known as an instigator of war. Coatlicue owned nothing and wore a garment made from rattlesnakes. The rattlesnake was a symbol of poverty and the earth sheltered the rattlesnake in holes. Known as Mother Earth. Her feet were giant claws, good for digging graves. In Mexico City a giant statue was discovered by William Bullock, an English traveler in 1824. Apparently during the final battle for Tenochtitlan, the statue just fell over and was preserved as Cortes built his city on top of it. The famous statue now stands in the National Museum in Mexico City. The several ton basalt statue was considered so horrible, that local priests had it re-buried after it's discovery in 1824.

Source: AZTEC RELIGION - (C)1997-99 Thomas H. Frederiksen

Cihuateteo
cihuateteo.jpg

Aztec Goddess: "The Celestial Princess" Associated with the spirits of women who died during childbirth. This issue of dying during childbirth is well documented by both Sahagun and Duran and was a significant event for the Mexica.

Coyolxauhqui

coyolxauhqui1.jpg

The moon goddess according the Aztec mythology. Her name means "Golden Bells." She was the daughter of the earth goddess, Coatlicue and the sister of the sun god, Huitzilopochtli. Coyolxauhqui encouraged her four hundred sisters and brothers to kill their dishonored mother. Coatlicue gave birth to Huitzilopochtli after a ball of feathers fell into the temple where she was sweeping and touched her. Huitzilopochtli sprang out of her mother as an adult fully armed and slew Coyolxauhqui and his other star sisters and brothers. Coatlicue regretted such violence. Thus, Huitzilopochtli cut off Coyolxauhqui's head and threw it into the sky to form the moon. aglow with the golden color of her bells.

>>"Golden Bells". The earth and moon-goddess of the Aztecs. She is related to the four hundred star-deities Huitznauna, who is under her control. She possesses magical powers which with she can do great harm. Coyolxauhqui decapitated her own mother Coatlicue when she became pregnant in what her children deemed unseemly circumstances. Immediately the sun-god Huitzilopochtli sprang fully armed from Coatlicue's womb and slew Coyalxauhqui and many of her kin. According to one tradition, Huitzilopochtli tossed her head into the sky where it became the moon. >> (Encyclopedia Mythica online)

Itzpapalotl

"Obsidian Knife Butterfly". The Aztec goddess of agriculture. She is mentioned as a dragon-like being. (Encyclopedia Mythica online)

Ix Chel

ixchellboulet.jpg

Picture: Susan Boulet

Lady Rainbow: Maya-Goddess

Wife to the high god Itzamná, she oversees weaving, medicine, and childbirth. Like the First Mother, she is a moon goddess, who is depicted sitting in a moon sign holding a rabbit.

Ix Chel is a complex Goddess of ancient Mexico. She was worshipped by the Putun and Yucatec Maya. The hare was one of Her primary symbols. Her husband was Itzamna, God of the Sun and Creation.

Another view: IXCHEL

In Maya myths,the angry old woman who emptied the vials of her wrath on the earth,and assisted the serpent in creating the deluge. Ixchel was the goddess of floods and cloudbursts,a malevolent deity likely to cause sudden destruction in a tropical storm. She was the consort of Itzamna,and appears as a clawed water goddess, surrounded by the symbols of death and destruction,a writhing serpent on her head,and crossbones embroidered on her skirt.
 

Ixtab

"Mistress of Death": Two Yucatec Mayan Goddesses share variations on this name: Ixtab and Ix Tab. Ixtab is the Mayan Goddess of Death, Sacrifice and Suicides.

Madre Vieja: (Old Mother)

Her real name is unknown, probably Xochiquetzalli. She  is the Goddess of the Moon and the Earth. With his couple Padre Viejo (Old Father) created everything. Related with agriculture and fertility.

Hah goddess (Otomi-Tribe)

Mama Allpa

Inca Goddess of the Earth and of the harvest. Seen with many breasts, indicating fertility.

Mama Cocha

Inca Goddess of the sea and provider of the sea's bounty. She is a favorite of sefarers and fishermen.

Mama Oello

Mother goddess of the Incas. She taught them spinning.

Mama Pacha

Mama Pacha was the Earth Mother of the Chincha of Peru. She oversees planting and harvesting. Some depict Her as a great dragon Who causes earthquakes.

Mama Quilla

"Lady Moon": In the Incan tongue, Her name means "Mother Moon" or "Golden Mother." She oversaw marriages, the calendar and feast days.

Mayahuel

"Many-Breasted": This Aztec Goddess of Agriculture is often associated with Chalchiuhtlicue and Tlazolteotl (both profiled in this section). Like Artemis of the Ephesians, She is portrayed with many breasts.

Mudu 

"Lady of the Dead" Goddess of Death. She is described as a serpent with blue spots.

Hah goddess (Otomi-Tribe)

Nohpyttecha

Goddess of filth and also of lust. She was related to prostitution. Nohpyttecha was also the deity of the Earth and the Moon, which enabled her with fertility attributes. Many believe that its equivalent is Tlazolteotl.

Hah goddess (Otomi-Tribe)

Nungui

"Lady of the Manioc": Among the Jivaro of Peru, She is an Earth Goddess Who oversees vegetation. She is honored as the Gover of Civilization. The manioc is Her special plant.

Teteoinnan

"Lady Midwife": This ancient Goddess of the Aztecs is known as "Mother of Sacred Ones." She is a Mother Goddess.

Tlazolteotl


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toltecgoddessboulet.jpg
Picture: Susan Boulet

Aztec/Mexican goddess of love and sexuality whose worship included sacred prostitution. In her dark aspect she is associated with death and human sacrifice; as well as with witchcraft and terror.

 

An ancient and much-loved Aztec Goddess, Tlazolteotl was Matron of both Pleasure and Sin, though not in the sense many Christians would think. Her name means "Filth Deity."

The ending of her name "teotl" is recorded by the Spanish as loosely meaning "god" or "saint". The term "teotl" was primarily used to refer to nature-deities. "teotl" may also refer to anything "mysterious, powerful, or beyond ordinary experience".
Source: AZTEC RELIGION - (C)1997-99 Thomas H. Frederiksen

>>The Aztec earth and mother-godddess, and goddess of sex. In the Aztec mind, sex was unclean and thus Tlazolteotl was also regarded as a personification of filth. She was the mother of Cinteotl.>> (Encyclopedia Mythica online)

And here an email (19/10/99) I got from Kirstin
with some interesting thoughts on the goddess:

I once read that Tlazolteotl, as well as sacred prostitute and Mother of death, also served a sort of confessor role.  If properly approached, the Eater of Filth actually ate her worshipers' sins, taking them into herself & cleansing the devotee.  This makes a great deal of sense to me, causing a rather frightening Goddess to be loved as well as feared by common people.  As a matter of fact, in my work as a sort of casual healer (friends and family), I've had some measurable success invoking Her, then literally sucking in & swallowing ill energy from things like headaches or throat/sinus infections.

None of this may have any historical basis, of course, but I imagine that if we want to reawaken devotion to & knowledge of ancient Goddesses, we should include modern impressions & interpretations.  The Goddess, in all Her aspects, changes every day, as do all Her creations.  Thank you again for such an amazing resource for Goddess worshipers. Blessings,
Kristin Bishop

Tonantzin,
Chicomecoatl

"The Goddess of Sustenance", "Honored Grandmother", "Snake": Aztec Goddess of the Earth. She brought the corn. Mother of the Corn.  

Her cult is ancient and as a goddess of fertility of the earth she was also regarded as a goddess of human fertility. Associated with the number 7, and was known as the Seven Serpent.

Appears in codices with a red face and body and holding ears of corn in both hands. Also known as the "Seven Serpent". Thought of as being a sister to the god of rain, Tlaloc.

Also refereed to as Chicomexochitl, or Chalchiuhcihuatl, meaning Seven flowers or "Woman of Precious Stone", and worshipped during the moveable feast called Xochilhuitl.

An idol attributed to this deity is described as being made of wood and in the image of a young woman of about twelve years. Her garments were red and well appointed. A tiara of red paper was on her head. Her neck was adorned with a necklace of corn and tied with a blue ribbon. Her hands held ears of corn and her arms were open. She had a special chamber atop the great pyramid in Tenochtitlan next to Huitzliopocttli(*26). This placement next to the revered patron god of the Mexica indicated the reverence and importance this deity held. A great festival to this deity was held each year near the fifteenth of September.
Source: AZTEC RELIGION - (C)1997-99 Thomas H. Frederiksen

 Mictecacihuatl-aztec-death-Goddess.jpg

 

  Xilonen
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Atztec Goddess: "Young corn mother". Corn goddess, in her aspect as the young and tender corn; as adult, she was known as Chicomecoatl* (Seven serpent) or as Chalchiuhcihuatl (Precious Woman). In old age, as Ilamatecuhtli (Old Princess). Female sacrifices in old Mexico were often called Xilonen.

>>Chicomecoatl: "Seven snakes". The Aztec goddess of maize during the Middle Culture period. She is sometimes called "goddess of nourishment". Every September a young girl representing Chicomecoatl was sacrificed. The priests decapitated the girl, collected her blood and poured it over a figurine of the goddess. The corpse was then flayed and the skin was worn by a priest. She is regarded as the female counterpart of the maize god Cinteotl, their symbol being an ear of corn. She is occasionally called Xilonen.>> (Encyclopedia Mythica online)

 Xochiquetzal
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Aztec Goddess of Love, Flowers and Dance.

Her name means "Flower Feather." She is the Goddess of Pleasure and Beauty. The Gardens of Xochimilco, south of Ciudad de Mexico, are named for Her.

>>The Aztec goddess of the earth, flowers, plants, games and dance, but mainly she is a goddess of love. She is also the patroness of artisans, prostitutes, pregnant women and birth. Originally Xochiquetzal ("Flower Feather") was associated with the moon. This goddess is the most charming of the Aztec pantheon and her retinue consists of butterflies and birds. Every eight years a feast was held in her honor where the celebrants wore animal and flowers masks. She is the twin sister of the flower prince Xochipilli and sometimes mentioned as the wife of the rain god Tlaloc. >>(Encyclopedia Mythica online)

Information via Email from Miguel :

Xochiquetzalli: Although she is considered to be part of the Nahua religion, Xochiquetzalli was a intercultural deity. Within the Hah she was considered to be the couple of Otontecuhtli (The Lord of the Otomi). Otontecuhtli was the highest being among the Hah, even today his real name is unknown, yet this powerful lord had a powerful lady as a wife, this was Xochiquetzalli. She ruled over weaving and sexual license. Many think Xochiquetzalli was considered to be the Madre Vieja (Old Mother).

 Zaramama

Inca Goddess of grain and corn.

Links

For Aztecs see this page: Aztecs Page has the original source of the spanish invasion.

The Aztecs (Site of Tom Frederiksen)
More information on Aztecs from a university Very good.
Lots of Links and Information on Aztecs History (with Gods, Rulers and bibliographical notes)
Images of Aztec Culture
And the ulimate Modern Aztec Site
A personal Aztec Religion Site

Melissa Crawford has sent me these links to Inca-sites: (04/01)

http://pantheon.org/mythica/areas/inca/
http://www.mythhome.org/samg.html
http://www.pbs.org/opb/conquistadors/peru/peru.htm
http://altreligion.about.com/religion/altreligion/library/deities/blinca.htm


MAYA:
Mostly Links ot other Maya-Sites
More Information on Maya Culture

General:
Special Source on Middle-American Religions
More Links
Mesoamerican Encyclopedia with Images